Xiaoke Bi, Connor Beck, and Yiyang Gong.
Biosensors 11(4), 116 (2021).
Genetically encoded fluorescent indicators, combined with optical imaging, enable the detection of physiologically or behaviorally relevant neural activity with high spatiotemporal resolution. Recent developments in protein engineering and screening strategies have improved the dynamic range, kinetics, and spectral properties of genetically encoded fluorescence indicators of brain chemistry. Such indicators have detected neurotransmitter and calcium dynamics with high signal-to-noise ratio at multiple temporal and spatial scales in vitro and in vivo. This review summarizes the current trends in these genetically encoded fluorescent indicators of neurotransmitters and calcium, focusing on their key metrics and in vivo applications.