Kilohertz two-photon brain imaging in awake mice

Tong Zhang, Oscar Hernandez, Radosław Chrapkiewicz, Adam Shai, Mark J. Wagner, Yanping Zhang, Cheng-Hsun Wu, Jin Zhong Li, Masatoshi Inoue, Yiyang Gong, Biafra Ahanonu, Hongkui Zeng, Haruhiko Bito, and Mark J. Schnitzer.

Nature Methods 16, 1119–1122 (2019).



Two-photon microscopy is a mainstay technique for imaging in scattering media and normally provides frame-acquisition rates of ~10–30 Hz. To track high-speed phenomena, we created a two-photon microscope with 400 illumination beams that collectively sample 95,000–211,000 µm2 areas at rates up to 1 kHz. Using this microscope, we visualized microcirculatory flow, fast venous constrictions and neuronal Ca2+ spiking with millisecond-scale timing resolution in the brains of awake mice.